Q: Where do I get the Alchemy Components? A: Currently you can get components the following ways:
Booty Grab now gives you a chance at Enki's Catch zOMG has a bunch of basic components, you can find a lot of those in the marketplace. Philosopher's Cache gives out rare components/formulas. However, it takes 5 golden giftboxes to make one of these.
Daily Chance & Dumpster Dive gives out Alchemy stuff, too.
Q: Which components are there? A: There is a list of components here but it doesn't have the locations the item comes from listed with the items
Q: Why is alchemy so expensive? A: It's a goldsink system, also because the community is greedy and want more gold for their components then they are worth, simple case of supply and demand.
Q: What are the Philosopher's Cache and the Alchemist's Case? A: The Philosopher's Cache is for very rare components. The Alchemist's Case is for very rare Formulas.
Someone is compiling a list of items that come from it here.