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'Any dark saying': Louis MacNeice in the nineteen fifties.
The Particular contours involving Louis MacNeice's profession are rarely contested:from the actual high point regarding his nineteen thirties work, reaching any crescendowith Autumn Journal (1939), he drifted right into a slump, reaching a new nadirwith a couple of collections from your early nineteen fifties, Ten BurntOfferings (1952) and also Autumn Sequel (1954), just before reviving to develop astartling new design following your decade. The Particular historical momentclearly demanded stylistic renegotiation, both with regard to poets living inIreland as well as individuals outside it, in comparison with the new stylesdeveloped coterminously simply by Clarke as well as Kavanagh, MacNeice's latework is stark, suggestive regarding nightmarish solipsism and a breakdown ofsocial cohesion. If the actual failure of his volumes from your early Fiftiessuggested a new symbolic break among self as well as society, his subsequentinward flip affirms the actual self as the ground involving lyric poetry.MacNeice's late function needs in order to be understood as symptomatic involving anencroaching dissolution involving communality that would profoundly affect thecultures regarding each islands since the twentieth century progressed. This kind of essayexplores MacNeice's stylistic evolution from mid century andconsiders the extent to which usually these developments had been an essentialfoundation for that advance of his remarkable late style.


The three many canonical Irish poets in the mid century each
experienced a manufacturer new lease involving lifestyle inside the nineteen fifties. in certain
respects this was among the actual couple of items they shared. Austin
Clarke's Ancient Lights (1955) broke the extended poetic silence. His
first collection regarding seventeen years, it heralded a manufacturer new confidence as well as a
prolific era, regarding him, which will last until the early nineteen
seventies. (1) Patrick Kavanagh ultimately regarded your 'noo
pomes' he wrote inside the 2nd 50 % of 1957 as his finest work.
Having recovered via an operation pertaining to lung cancer within 1955, he'd
spent the really first 1 / 2 of 1957 in New York, where he evidently
enjoyed--and felt affiliated with--much new American poetry. Lithe with
improvisatory energy, his 'noo pomes' are usually abundant along with a
sense of rejuvenation and new-found freedom. (2) Meanwhile, the contours
of Louis MacNeice's career tend to be rarely contested: in the high
point involving his nineteen thirties work, reaching a new crescendo along with Autumn
Journal (1939), he drifted into a slump following the second world War,
reaching any nadir with a couple of collections from the early nineteen fifties,
Ten Burnt Offerings (1952) and Autumn Sequel (1954), prior to reviving to
develop any startling new type inside the late nineteen fifties. The
dream-logic parable poems in Solstices (1961) as well as the Burning Perch
(1963) are usually compelling within their warped isolation, electric inside their
pessimism. the latter has been printed per week after his early death.

The Irish mid-twentieth century is, associated with course, inseparable fromstereotypes regarding stagnation as well as conservatism. The idea is practically the given thatthe imaginative task regarding Irish writers of the era precluded an aestheticconfrontation using the cultural stasis where they located themselves.Whatever approach 1 contextualizes it, the particular historical moment necessitatedstylistic renegotiation, as well as the shared encounter regarding Clarke(1896-1974), Kavanagh (1904-67), as well as MacNeice (1907-63) suggests thiswas no easy task. However compared with almost all the new styles developedcoterminously by simply Clarke and Kavanagh, MacNeice's late function isstark, suggestive associated with nightmarish solipsism and a breakdown regarding socialcohesion. (3) MacNeice's relation to later Irish poetry,especially from the North, and on contemporary British poetry, fromLarkin onwards, can be widely recognized; (4) yet his late verse additionally hasaffinities along with European poetry (Zbignew Herbert, Vasko Popa andMiroslav Holub spring to mind), and with a writer such as J.G. Ballard.

MacNeice's late type strikes any sombre note in comparison to
his work in the Thirties, that ended up being marked by its social commitment and
refusal in order to surrender to broken individualism. by contrast, throughout his late
work, the particular feeling of each self as well as society is now morbidly
phantasmagorical. That is actually easy, and commonplace, to relate this to his
outsider status like a Northern Irishman within England. Offered that he do not
'feel in the particular home about possibly island', as Michael Longley claims, it
might be unsurprising that he ended up a laureate associated with homelessness and
alienation. (5) but beyond biography, his later stylistic shift is of
much broader consequence in order to our understanding of Irish as well as British
mid-century literature.

His late work may well very best be understood as symptomatic involving an
encroaching dissolution of communality that will clearly and profoundly
affect the particular cultures involving both islands as the twentieth century ground
onwards. While a new poet located in England, MacNeice's late function indicates
how, specifically in the nineteen fifties, he bore witness for you to a loss associated with profits of
collective power within the aftermath with the 2nd Globe War, as becoming a newly
disempowered culture, fractured by the breakup regarding empire, floundered in
its uncertain approach in direction of any consumerist society. From the actual extremely least,
MacNeice's perform during the Fifties is stretched among a residual
communality which was increasingly felt being moribund, as well as an emergent
trajectory regarding diminishing social cohesion.

In turn, this may be an increasingly apt method to view the actual Irish nineteenfifties. The Particular cultural effects of late capitalism possess stood a similarlyflattening impact upon each Irish as well as British culture. of course, thecolossal transformations wrought by globalization came suddenly and lateto Ireland, in the guise with the Celtic Tiger. Yet we shouldn't ignorethe slower, uncertain, deeply uneven cultural and economic mutationsengendered in Ireland simply by free-market capitalism prior towards the seismicboom of the nineteen nineties. To End Up Being Able To be sure, it could end up being simplistic tosuggest in which the economical policies synonymous together with T.K. Whitaker andSean Lemass, which first started to take effect around 1958, woulddirectly and inevitably lead for the Celtic Tiger, also to our currentpost-crash doldrums. However outside of Ireland, it's par for the course tolocate the gearshift inside the inexorable rise regarding multinational capitalismsomewhere round the nineteen fifties. in short, it might be crude anddubious in order to streamline modern Irish history directly into an overarching narrativethat leads straight via communality to end up being able to deracinated globalization. Butbroad perspectives tend to be as necessary as historical specificity, and, atthe time of writing, it could seem remiss not really being guided simply by a quantity of suchperspective, regardless involving how generalized.

The Irish mid-century seems caught between a new rock and a tough place:
stretched in between a declining nationalistic communality, and also an
historical trajectory that would bring liberal energies along with freedoms,
but additionally new and also huge difficulties. MacNeice, Kavanagh and Clarke
approached this inherent crux of the nineteen fifties in differing ways.
The careers associated with all three poets exemplify how the unclear shifts of
historical alter demand stylistic vigilance and also aesthetic evolution,
but MacNeice's transformation during the decade can be particularly
striking. in the Fifties he was, in certain respects, a new poet haunted by
his poetic past inside the Thirties. while Autumn Journal exemplified the
apparently easeful approach where he fused the actual individual as well as the communal
in the poetics involving social awareness along with commitment, the failure of Autumn
Sequel indicated a loss involving adequate style. His subsequent reinvigoration
hinged by utilizing an intense lyric re-examination associated with self, culture and also form, in
a design that will graphically laid bare along with analyzed the symbolic breakdown
between poetic subjectivity along with society.

By the particular nineteen fifties, MacNeice had mostly given up his vexed
animus using Ireland, even when he had not fairly arrived at peace together with the
place. He also gave up sharply differentiating among North as well as South
and submitting each as well as every to end up being able to trenchant cultural analysis--manoeuvres that
distinguished his verse inside the Thirties. It wouldn't always be accurate to always be able to say
that Irish references lose his or her specificity totally in his late verse;
nonetheless, Ireland broadly gets an impressionistic-symbolic
landscape plus a parable-site regarding origins; both aspects increasingly
rendered in the vivid but unstable as well as dreamlike manner. and since all of
his poetry becomes progressively a lot more parabolic or even dreamlike, any
attempt in order to differentiate among Ireland--North or even South--and Britain,
becomes difficult and, indeed, regarding questionable relevance. Pertaining To example,
MacNeice's biographer Jon Stallworthy traces 'House on a
Cliff' into a holiday house inside Dorset that MacNeice rented in July
1955, yet instantly factors to its potent echoes of, as well as symbolic
kinship with, earlier poems about his childhood house throughout Carrickfergus.
(6) Inside such ways, while he developed his late style, Britain along with Ireland
become steadily intermeshed, transfused into a hallucinatory realm that
clamours using uncanny clarity although providing much less and much less for you to cling on
to. (7)

However, it took a little while with regard to MacNeice in order to accomplish his late high
style. The Majority Of critics get implicitly accepted in which there is little in order to be
gained via dwelling on the dolorous along with dispiriting Ten Burnt Offerings
and Autumn Sequel. Outwardly, MacNeice ended up being bullish. of Ten Burnt
Offerings he wrote: 'Personally I believe this book breaks new
ground, these poems becoming much more architectural--or possibly I ought to say
symphonic--than what I ended up being doing before.' ( cool He additionally described the
book as 'ten long poems that get been experiments within dialectical
structure'. (9) However these experiments resulted in a dialectic that
produced simply no tension, zero drama, simply no imaginative engagement, no
development, with no authentic a feeling of structure. 1 regarding his most
committed advocates, Edna Longley, has written the style
'betrays its own desperation as abstraction within pursuit of image,
image inside pursuit involving point, humanism within pursuit of validation, technique
in pursuit of inspiration, colour in pursuit regarding meaning'. (10) A
few years before the book's composition, MacNeice had argued:
'Verse is actually a precision instrument as well as owes its precision very
largely towards the many and subtle variances which usually an ordinary term can
acquire coming from its place in the rhythmical scheme.' (11) This specific hits the
nail on the head: there can be zero accurate precision without the point of
pressure, and, lacking this, despite MacNeice's resourceful lexicon
and bombardment of rhetorical technique, the particular rhythm inside Ten Burnt
Offerings is actually leaden, the language fail to animate, as well as the verse remains
stubbornly fiat-lined.

Autumn Sequel can be beset from the same lumpish verbosity, at greater
length. MacNeice wrote: 'What I feel myself needs to be most
interesting concerning this function may end up being the balance I get tried to achieve
between your realistic and the contemporary around the one hand as well as the
mythical or even historical around the other.' (12) Throughout the actual book's
'attempt for you to marry myth to become able to "actuality"', (13) the
hubris associated with clambering upon inside a humdrum terza rima from such duration is actually amply
matched by the conceit associated with mythologizing actuality by method of dressing
up pals and acquaintances within bizarrely inane pseudonyms, then
assuming they hold the gravitas regarding communal consequence. the balance
between the contemporary as well as mythical is sorely misjudged. It's not
just the poem, as Peter McDonald argues, helps make 'the concrete
abstract in a world too overtly symbolic in order to appear real' (14)--a more
pressing difficulty may always be the abject hollowness of the symbolic globe in which it
presumes to ramble by means of therefore exhaustively. Its lack of pressure and
lifeless rhythm make certain that neither myth nor actuality requires hold. In
producing this kind of zombification with the lithe, coiled, tensile, swooping,
elastic as well as loaded series associated with Autumn Journal, your former poem's
searching as well as energized embroiling associated with self as well as society will be dispelled.
Edna Longley writes: 'Autumn Sequel remains mainly self-paraphrase
or self-parody: a new translation associated with MacNeice's poetry straight into much less than
his prose.' (15)

A defining impetus regarding Autumn Journal, and possibly of
MacNeice's output as being a Thirties poet generally, was crystallized in
his guide in Yeats: 'History for that artist is something which usually is
evolving and the particular man himself will be aiding as well as abetting it.' (16) Within broad
terms, the actual stylistic failure involving Ten Burnt Offerings as well as Autumn Sequel
implied any severance in this dynamic. The idea needs for you to be stressed that MacNeice
remained defiant within defending each textbooks unreservedly, and also Peter
McDonald argues that, without having them, his late, fantastic type wouldn't have
been possible. (17) However if these were the crucial stepping stone, this is
at least partially because, deep down, the particular late verse must have stemmed
from a new stung awareness of, along together with a reaction to, their own failure. Al
Alvarez's report on Autumn Sequel inside The Brand Name New Statesman reads like a
virtual epitaph regarding Thirties poetry, dismissing both MacNeice along with Auden:
'they possess grow for you to be weary and knowing along with bored by making use of it all. Just About All we
can do is, with them, lament your makers they could possess been', (1 cool
Stallworthy narrates a new visit to Edinburgh within 1955, the place exactly where a dismal
MacNeice, morose inside his whisky, insisted 'he has been finished as a
poet'. (19)


In fairness, however, both books had been partially concerning poetic
failure; or, in least, about the trouble regarding obtaining symbolic
resonance within changed times. Several of this, of course, was merely linked
to the actual poet receiving older: 'This middle stretch / Regarding life's bad
for poets'. (20) but for you to entirely blame his mid-career slump on
middle grow older seems questionable. Autumn Sequel locations your poem's own
lack involving content material centre-stage: 'Actors' careers go on as well as I
sometimes feel / Which I am an actor too, the Muse features defaulted /
/ Along With left me an apparatus, rivet or even link, / Along With not even try to hyperlink or
rivet'. (21) soon enough, however create such intimations the
authentic provenance associated with his art.

One involving the greater telling passages in Autumn Sequel can be Canto IV,
which deals with MacNeice's experiences associated with working for your BBC in
London throughout the 2nd world War. Clair Wills within In Which Neutral Island:
A Cultural History of Ireland Throughout Globe War II (2007) discusses
MacNeice's option to commit himself for you to London during the war. She
finds it most likely that, before an individual make your decision, he contemplated basing
himself within neutral Ireland, just as much because he gave serious thought to
life in the US. Eventually, your woman recounts, MacNeice wrote: 'I felt
that I wasn't justified within supporting the actual war verbally unless I were
prepared to end up being able to suffer as any result inside the method that the actual unprivileged must
suffer.' (22) and his option to live within London was honourably
self-consistent, although the actual 'what may get been' element
of the possible life in America extremely most likely contributed to the haunted,
conflicted nature involving his verse thereafter. Through default, of course, the
war brought the actual problem associated with poetry's role vis-a-vis social reality
to an insurmountable crisis point. MacNeice certainly wrote lasting and
affective verse concerning London throughout the war, from 'London
Rain' to 'Homage in order to Wren'. (23) However understandably and, I
think, clearly, the particular war damaged his faith throughout art's agency, in
liberalism, plus 'the price of living', thereby altering the
foundations of his aesthetic. (24)

In Canto IV of Autumn Sequel, MacNeice gives any disconsolate account
of your frustration of the author swallowed whole through administrative
emptiness: 'We hack and also hack', reduced to always be able to producing
propaganda, 'miles in miles / Regarding carbon copies rippling by means of the
waste / Involving workplace hours'. (25) The Actual wartime trope regarding labyrinthine
bureaucracy, of abject imprisonment inside the fathomless administrative
machine, may easily be well-worn, yet MacNeice renders it using something
like culture shock. Offered his previous writing's committed
examination with the social obligations and political effectiveness of
poetry, and also due in order to the symbolic momentousness regarding his decision to commit
himself to London all through the particular war, this utterly banal expertise of
the writer's disempowerment is manufactured to end up being able to seem, inside Autumn Sequel, like
having one's nose rubbed inside it.

The redundancy of a culture dominated by simply deadening bureaucracy
becomes an abiding motif within MacNeice's work, reaching any zenith in
'The Suicide' from the Burning Perch: 'These are the
bills / Throughout the particular intray, the particular ash within the ashtray, your grey memoranda
stacked / Against him' ... 'and here is the cracked / Receiver
that by simply no means got mended along with here may always be the jotter / Using his last doodle
which might be their own digestive tract / Ulcer'. (26) Earlier, in
the title poem of Visitations (1957), MacNeice proffered any vision of
God: 'he sat in his office along with in-tray as well as out-tray / While
nobody, nothing, started in yet typed memoranda'. (27) Moreover, this
cosmic bureaucratic vacuity gets to be steadily more fused using a sense of
consumerism and reification. in 'The Tree regarding Guilt' we read of
'the purchasable loves / which usually ... were purveyed / In credit
through the particular slinking shade'. (2 cool Within 'Jigsaws', MacNeice

Property! Property! Allow us extend
Soul and the entire body without end:
Any box to reside in, together with airs as well as graces,
Any box in wheels in which shows its paces,
A New box that talks or perhaps that produces faces,
And Also curtains along with fences nearly as good since the neighbours'
For You To repel your neighbours and also keep us immured
enjoying the cold canned fruit of our labours
in a sterilized cell, unshared, insured. (29)

Terence Brown features commented on MacNeice's changing attitude
towards consumerism:

MacNeice's intuition to become able to delight within the presence associated with objects,
things, sensations, to end up being able to relish typical life, coexists with a slowly
intensifying distaste pertaining to mass production. A Lot More and much more throughout the
post-war period (as the customer society replaced the particular austerity of
the particular war economy and the welfarism associated with socialist reconstruction
below Labour), he gets in order to be assailed with a a feeling of meaning,
vitality, being drained from issues while they proliferate in the
endless repetitive availability which is your motor of modern
commerce. The Actual alienation which he expressed with increasing
bitterness because he grew older may get its psychological, religious
as well as metaphysical anxieties, but its significant social context must
not necessarily be disregarded'. (30)

In 1 respect, MacNeice's poetic turnaround in the Fifties
was related to the growing aptness along with control with that he
dramatized an escalating feeling of this draining associated with vitality.

As early as 1927, he had complained in a letter: 'Language is
at 1st a new help nevertheless finally a hindrance. While you initially identify a dog a
"dog", it can easily help you receive in its entity however in the short quantity of time the
word "dog" becomes a cliche helping small in direction of the
visualisation involving dog. The Actual essence regarding dog will be lost as the symbol
remains.' (31) Through and also large, his verse throughout his career
explored this inherent problem, but in the late Fifties, an abiding
sense develops that most words, grammatical constructions and poetic
tropes have been infected from the emptiness regarding cliche. Prosodic and
rhetorical conventions supply types which are inescapable and necessary,
but which in turn are also insubstantial and unreal, as MacNeice's poetic
becomes haunted simply by an inner absence.

His poetry had often been drawn to end up being able to repetition, yet this gets in order to be a
pivotal means of exploring emptiness along with destabilization inside the late
Fifties. in particular, his verse is actually increasingly dominated by simply chiasmus
and chiastic-like effects, as MacNeice becomes 'a purposeful man
who talks in cross / Purposes'. (32) Interestingly, Ten Burnt
Offerings is full of such repetitive riffs: 'Such can be water, such
are we / World's many variables, constant within our variability';
'Blessed are your ones ... / Whom regardless involving the weight around the heart have
the coronary heart to end up being able to wait'. (33) However such riddling twists and also inversions
within any repetitive echo-structure would be the cleverly labored constructions
of unruffled analytic control, describing metaphysical discombobulation
rather when compared with enacting it. Throughout Ten Burnt Offerings, the actual rhetorical
tintinnabulations feel in ease as well as clear on their own location within the scheme of
things, drably expressing a new dialectic among 'something'
(sound, colour, being) and 'nothing' (silence, monotone,
negation): 'The windblown web by which we stay / Presumes a new yawning
negative, / A New absolutely nothing which usually cries out to see / The one thing flout its
vacancy'. (34) the verse will be as well assured within presuming that what it
discerns in India will be pervasive by means of all reality: 'Monochrome
under the woman's motley, monolith below the woman's flimflam.' (35) Lacking edge
and an imaginative pulse, MacNeice's late Fifties renaissance
entailed discovering the type to create this dialectic freshly dramatic.

Superficially, when the failure associated with Ten Burnt Offerings along with Autumn
Journal suggested a new symbolic breakdown between self along with society, his
subsequent poetry's inward turn, fuelled by simply dream logic, may well be
understood as MacNeice's broad reaction. feeling adrift, cut off
from the pulse of contemporary culture, he returns within the late Fifties
to the self since the ground involving lyric poetry. Inside your Clark lectures of
1963, posthumously revealed as Varieties of Parable (1967), MacNeice
would say: 'People who've grown up since your war just can't see
the point of great importance and poetry of the 1930s.' (36) He would additionally claim:
'when writing for a mass audience, it is unlikely that any writer
today will reveal your essential moral framework with them'. (37) Of
course, he by absolutely no means very wrote his verse for a 'mass audience',
yet the particular sense of an irreparable gulf in between artist and also society is
increasingly pervasive. Quoting coming from Edwin Honig's Darkish Conceit:
The Creating involving Allegory, MacNeice appropriately contextualizes the actual monadic
individualism of modernity as which consists of roots inside the cultural
disruptions associated with Protestantism: 'Some explanation for that elusive
pattern and the growing ambiguity in modern allegories could always be found
in your destruction in the rigid base of cultural authority upon which
allegory traditionally depended, and in the relatively higher stress
put upon your autonomy with the artist since your Reformation.' (3 cool

Fast-forward towards the mid-twentieth century, as well as the rise of monadic
individualism and concomitant dispersal regarding culture like a continuous
communal space establishes parable because the contemporary successor to
allegory. Parable would always be to allegory what Imagism is often to Symbolism: an
established fixity regarding associations offers method to some thing at exactly your same time more
concrete and much more indefinite. MacNeice's personal the majority of compelling
definition of parable is actually Realm Of The Mad God Hack his the majority of open-ended: 'any kind of
enigmatical or darkish saying'. (39) Peter McDonald, using a nod for you to the
failures with the early Fifties, writes: 'Parable, regarding MacNeice, came
increasingly to imply incompleteness throughout its execution, and, with this
incompleteness, its incorporation into lyric poetry became more
feasible. Indeterminate parable will end up being the basis of the poetry's
achievement within Solstices and Your Burning Perch'. (40)

Although your alteration of tenor of MacNeice's inner turn, fuelled
by indeterminate parable, is actually distinct, it would always be wrong to suggest it
was an absolute recantation regarding art's communal reach. Rather, it
provided a more ambivalent framework much better suited to changed times.
'In the actual 1930's', he writes, 'we used to claim that the
poet should include your journalist; now I would tend more often to use
"contain" within the feeling of manage or perhaps limit. I nonetheless hold that
a poet will wish to look at, really feel concerning and consider the planet around him,
but he must not suppose his job consists merely inside reporting it. What
the poet is far much more involved using is that "inner
conflict".' (41) But this 'inner conflict' still
entails the social as well as symbolic contexts within which usually individuality
experiences its crises. MacNeice claims: 'Given the identical historical
and geographical background, many people's privacies tend to
overlap.' (42) and so, very first as well as foremost, dream logic and also parable
suggest the actual discarnate isolation of the dead-ended contemporary:
'He slept aloft on a sarsen stone / Dreaming to, dreaming fro, /
And the more he dreamt had been the harder alone'. (43) Yet, in the same
time, the actual inward flip is necessary to reconceive the particular aesthetic
connections among self and society. Inside 'Donegal Triptych'
MacNeice writes associated with 'Once much more having entered solitude once more to
find communion / Together With various other solitary beings, with all the whole race of
men'. (44) This specific thought he will take from your Marxist critic Christopher
Caudwell, whom he also cites in Varieties regarding Parable, as well as that wrote of
'that paradox involving art--man withdrawing coming from his fellows directly into the
world regarding art, and then enter much more closely straight into communion with
history'. (45)

Clearly, in the best in the late poems, such communion requires a
distorted and sometimes desperate path. Our privacies overlap, but only
deep inside an endless, distorting web associated with shared isolation. But
nonetheless, as Caudwell's paradox suggests, the particular late verse remains
inherently dialectic. And Also despite the actual magnitude with the transformation
wrought throughout MacNeice's late verse, in this respect it shares the
same source of poetic power along using his Thirties poetry, that has been itself
dialectically fired simply by scepticism along with self-doubt. MacNeice had been a
foppishly solipsistic modernist within his juvenilia. like Auden, he willed
his artwork away from overt alienation as the Thirties wore on; but
sensitivity for the reification, automation along with heightening vacuity of
culture pervades even one in the most socially dedicated poetry of both. While
Auden, after the second Globe War, became and also remained loose-lined and
verbose, MacNeice's response to his as well as the girl own dull spell of
discursiveness was to revisit the disjointed and also strange-toned
atmosphere involving early Auden--the kind of diagnostic estrangement from
which generic Thirties poetry arose in the first place. in your Thirties,
MacNeice mostly turned through negation for you to focus on the positive, while in
the Fifties he increasingly reversed this direction. yet his very best work
of each decade ultimately gains poetic life from a sprung dialectic,
which MacNeice had lost inside the drift of the early Fifties.

MacNeice's repetitions along with chiastic-like effects, regarding example,
create any paradox regarding movement along with stasis. Nevertheless the strategy can be variable.
In your greatest regarding his late verse he could ensure it is convey how the circumstance is both
singular and multiple at exactly the particular same time. It can imply the particular imprisonment of
the ever-same, a real possibility monotonous along with fixed. As Well As it can easily suggest how the
slightest change within sameness may be all-important and liberating:
'For the last blossom is the initial blossom / and the first blossom
is your very best blossom / And Also when coming from Eden we consider our way / The Actual morning
after will be the first day'. (46) Your need to reiterate in order to
express sameness opens up a potentially redemptive c***k associated with freedom:

And Also what was nowhere now had been here
Along With here had been almost all and all was good;
between the actual lines the words were strange
yet not necessarily being misunderstood.
The Actual glad flowers talked using tongues associated with flame
and who was he had not been the actual same. (47)

Yet from the same time, the particular inverse can be true, as well as the transitions
within repetitions could be abysms, destroying what should seemingly be
stable. Because 'Variation upon Heraclitus' puts it:
'Reappearance presumes disappearance'. (4 cool Essentially,
MacNeice's late-Fifties poetry comes to always be able to jolting life when the
variability inherent within repetition can be endowed with an authentic
sense involving unpredictability: when it turns straight into a hinge for your unexpected,
when your positive and also negative facets of the actual trope will always be in competition.
In turn, this animation depends upon matters involving rhythm, syntax and
structure; but additionally upon your extent for you to which MacNeice would use the
trope in order to radically challenge his poetry's a feeling of self.

His poetry's repetitions truly arrive into their very own in
exploring the actual paradox in the self as it is perceived throughout differing times,
places, contexts, moods: often your same, usually different. In
MacNeice's late verse, the actual self's ability to bear throughout mind or
imagine itself normally becomes, with times, virtually psychotropic. The
ability in order to manage reflexively shifting self-perceptions is lost; the
stable centre that can usually keep shifting perspectives in
perspective vanishes, using the outcome which they are usually experienced as
full-scale metamorphoses and also displacements. Your thought can be planted in
Autumn Sequel, inside a childhood memory the location where the family's cook says
at bedtime: 'Aye, you are here now--but a person don't know / Exactly Where you
will always be whenever you wake up'. (It is telling, associated with course, which the
privileged Protestant's dislocation will be helped alongside through 'A
Catholic farmer's daughter through Fivemiletown' employed simply by his
family.) (49) Throughout Visitations the actual motif actually starts to recur with frequency.
In 'The Tree regarding Guilt': 'he finds later, waking cold, /
... his craved heart, although vastly grown, / Certainly Not recognizably his
own'. (50) more black-humoured, within 'Jigsaws', after

fresh in the knife as well as coming to,
I questioned myself could this end up being I
They Will had just cut up. 'Oh no, certainly not you,
Certainly not!' came the particular reply (51)

Such disorientations are, of course, commensurate using the dream
logic in which increasingly informs the particular poems via Visitations onwards. But
what is striking is actually how the particular poetry's dysmorphic
hallucinations are generally propelled through the difference-in-identity dialectic of
MacNeice's rhetorical and also prosodic repetitions, as poetic form
itself gives shaping force in order to increasingly bad trips.

This charged formal intensity distinguishes MacNeice's late
verse. Your poetry vividly explores the particular sense that 'I is
another', nevertheless registers this like a disaster; it memorably proffers
an expertise of reality as unstable, nevertheless really does consequently along with alarm and nausea;
it successfully warps conventional poetic form, nevertheless can consequently using taut and
innovative prosodic skill. Throughout such ways, it faces the actual shifting cultural
coordinates of history along with genuine bite. for example, the dislocation
between interior along with exterior realms will be acute, precisely because the
verse doesn't vacuously turn its again on their troubled
coexistence. The Particular continued juxtaposition associated with 'Indoors' and
'Outdoors' within 'House on a Cliff', and also the
continuities involving the two, helps to create the poem's atmosphere of
isolation, stasis and also breakdown every one regarding the more desolate: 'Indoors the
tang of the tiny oil lamp. Outdoors / Your winking signal on the waste of
the sea. / Indoors the actual sound of the wind. Outdoors the particular wind', (52)
Rather than the actual usual merely indulgent introversion, the particular continual
juxtapositions suggest in which each realms effectively taunt 1 another,
giving rise to a huge futility, here generated simply by asyndeton (the
omission involving conjunctions), that Edna Longley has noted as a vital device
of late MacNeice. Asyndeton, she explains, produces outcomes of
compression along with fragmentation: 'It points too you will find black
holes as opposed to cosmic back links in between phenomena.' (53) Thus the
poem brings the two realms together, while suggesting an
incommensurability which exists inside and also by means of their own interrelation.

Such antinomian workings are everywhere. The Actual utter disintegration
of 'Reflections' is generated coming from controlled precision and
accuracy: 'The regular / Lamp arrives thrice in my mirror, twice in
my window, / the fire in the mirror lies two rooms away via the
window, / The Actual fire within the window lies 1 room away on the terrace, /
My real room appears sandwiched between confections / Involving night and
lights as well as glass'. (54) The Particular late verse creates haunting results of
disembodiment, nevertheless this is best suited when the poems are at their own most
concrete. Within sum, the particular dialectical technique ensures that, whilst the
vision with the poetry is actually uncompromising, inside its bleakness it also
conveys a new a feeling of how issues could be otherwise--the conditions for
resolution are implied in the articulation involving dissolution--which gives
the verse force along with consequence, a dramatic intimation that something
fundamental are at stake.

Much continues in order to be made involving MacNeice's concept of poetic structure, in
relation for the parable-like verse. Throughout his essay 'Experiences with
Images', he explained that, since Autumn Journal:

I have been eschewing the particular news-reel and attempting a new stricter
kind of drama which in turn largely depends upon structure. On
analysis ... this structural tightening-up generally seems to involve four
things: (1) your assortment of--or maybe the actual being selected by--a
single theme which in turn itself can end up being a strong symbol, (2) the rhythmical
pattern that holds that will theme together, (3) syntax (a more
careful purchasing of sentences, specifically in relation towards the verse
pattern), and (4) a more structural use involving imagery. (55)

This emphasis in 'structural tightening-up' can, I think,
distract via how brilliantly irregular significantly in the late poetry is. In
itself, MacNeice's statement arguably describes an overly smooth,
controlled and thus potentially boring feeling of poetic structure.
Indeed, 'Experience with Images' ended up being published throughout 1949, and
therefore partially explains the actual diffuse flatness with the early Fifties
long poems. but then again, the particular tight construction with the successful late,
short lyrics is actually unquestionably central to their all-important
compression as well as tautness. It would appear that concentrated regulation of
structure arrives in order to life in the event it embraces disorder.

Writing regarding MacNeice's 'non-structural imagery',
Terence Brown argues:

Images float free from poems, bright, particular, unrelated in order to the
structures which they will fracture, for you to suggest your independence,
the actual nominal nature, of the perception impressions they will capture. The
poems' structures fragment in order to suggest the sceptical distrust of even
these poems' very own organisation. Such poems suggest the particular plural
disorganisation involving an expertise that refuses to be captured
entirely inside a poem, inside a structural form'. (56)

What seems fascinating can be how, inside the tightly structured late
poems, a new comparable effect is registered. the poems are usually coherently, even
meticulously, organized yet their particular careful arrangement serves to be able to generate
derangement: their particular organisation is actually firmly given but troublesome; their
structural form captures precisely the plural disorganisation of
experience that remains beyond rational comprehension. The Particular late style
reaches its peak when MacNeice's line, rhythm, syntax, rhymes and
repetitions operate in concert, but much more so, when his or her extraordinary
orchestration bewilders using purposive glitches along with dissonance.

It therefore seems pertinent to always be able to finish through seeking closer with this
uncanny prosody in action. 'All over Again', developed in 1959
and placed because the final poem within Solstices, is in many ways the particular crown of
MacNeice's perform in the Fifties. Counterpointing your darkness of
much in the book, it brings things to the near having a strikingly bright
shift in tone, while, unpunctuated as well as in long, loosely hexameter lines,
it additionally brings the actual book's formal adventurousness to a rousing
climax. in many ways, 'All over Again' can become a summation of
MacNeice's many haunted enjoy poems. Its opening lines are saturated
with nostalgic enchantment. And Also yet, the poem's rhythmic swoon is
not sustained all through the poem. Exactly what begins virtually as song becomes
difficult for you to study aloud:

As if I had recognized an individual for years consume if i listen to a person ask me merely if
those frontiers had by no means changed about the mad map in the years
and the whole tears had been earned which were the extremely first cliff
Via that we embraced the actual sea and we had been holding the first words
We spread to always be able to lure your birds which nested in our day
Since if it had been often morning their own dawnsong theirs along with ours
As Well As waking nobody different me and furthermore you just now
under the brow of the blue and also imperturbable hill
Exactly Where nonetheless time is an acronym and also plays his bland along with hemlock pipe
And Also the actual ripe moment tugs but declines to fall and also all
the years we hadn't met forget by themselves throughout this
one kiss ingathered world as well as outward rippling bell
In Order To your rim in the cup regarding the sun and leave it just there
near directly into far blue in to blue all over again
Notwithstanding unique almost all over all again
Regarding which usually to communicate needs new fires with the tongue some trick
Involving the light in the darkish with the muted voice of the turning wild
world but relaxed in her storm gay in their ancient rocks
To be Able To preserve these days 1 kiss in this skybound timeless cup
Nor now shall I request for anything more involving long term or even past
This kind of being last as well as 1st sound sight about eyes along with ears
And Also every long then where there suspended about this cliff
Shining along with slicing edge which reflects the sun's rays as if
This 1 In Between were Just About All and we within adore for years. (57)

MacNeice provides planted a quantity of kinks and wrinkles to trouble the actual tongue.
The poem's song-like cadence gets de-tuned: it seems like in order to pick up
radio static halfway through.

To end up being sure, an ardent sonority presides. As Well As yet, the actual buckling of
its flow subtly distorts the overall tone as well as timbre. MacNeice makes
heavy use regarding enjambment, in order that many in the clauses in the poem's
long lines tend to be spooled more than to the next. This specific is sometimes carried out with
super-sinuous fluency but, at times, it really is disjunctive. Meanwhile, on
several occasions, there is a tongue-tripping rhythmic breakdown
midline. Along With these two elements are at the nub with the poem: why it takes
a level of will and also effort to hold it together. MacNeice has created a
beguiling yet subjective expertise for your reader. Because 1 begins to
reread 'All over Again', it actually is challenging to recognize the real approach it is
going for you to run. Your experience is unique in every reading. Sometimes it
seems to always be able to unravel, however with some other occasions it practically uses up along with resplendence.

Throughout his career, MacNeice constantly manipulated rhyme as a
motor of rhythm, and also 'All More Than Again' constitutes a high point
in this regard. Your poem repeatedly rhymes more than the aim of enjambment,
so that the end-word frequently rhymes having a phrase close to the beginning of
the next line. and thus giving a new wave-like momentum to the lines,
creating your poem's crucial 'he's lost it; oh, no,
he's got it again again' sensation. Meanwhile, the actual end-rhyme
'cliff' / 'if' over the penultimate two lines
creates a reversed echo of the 'if' / 'cliff'
end-rhyme from your poem's beginning, while the end-rhyme of
'ears' as well as 'years' at the poem's conclusion
further echo back again towards the 'years' and also 'tears' associated with its
opening, adding for the poem's 'back to where we started only
different' effect.

While such devices produce fluency, this gets to always be able to be distorted, here and
there, by way of a slow spondee more than the caesura: 'World but calm throughout her
storm gay in their ancient rocks'. Throughout some other places, an iambic trot at
the finish of a collection crashes in to 2 trochees in the start with the next
('voice in the turning wild / world yet calm in her storm').
This is specially noticeable because, elsewhere, your poem's
rhyming provides setup an expectation regarding flow precisely from the purpose of
enjambment. Additional lines are generally slightly skewed simply by bearing the weight regarding an
extra stress, developing a wobble in the rhythmic continuity, with regard to example:
'Notwithstanding unique most total again', as well as 'This
being last along with first audio sight in eyes and also ears'. Then again,
this may be clearly manipulated to happen from a few of the poem's
crucial moments.

By such prosodic means, the particular poem produces its double effect of
sonority as well as elusive malformation. Throughout many ways, this is truly a poem of
cliches, particularly within the particular context associated with MacNeice's very own oeuvre. As
such, your poem seems to become playing a casino game having its personal generic phrasing,
as if seeking out the particular restrictions regarding what it really can get away with. Generally there can
be small doubt that a big a part of its appeal is because of to its
atmosphere involving wistful entrancement. And Also immediate recognition is crucial
to its nostalgic ambience, partially secured through the opening echo associated with Ben
Jonson's 'Song For You To Celia' ('Drink in my experience merely with
thine eyes / and I will pledge along with mine; / Or Even depart a kiss inside the
cup, / As Well As I'll not inquire pertaining to wine), itself produced popular when set to
music inside the eighteenth century. (5 cool Nevertheless familiarity furthermore will come to
'All More Than Again' from a dizzying remix regarding images from
MacNeice's very own earlier lyrics. The idea practically reads like a sequel to
'Meeting Point': its 'rippling bell' finally lets
the bell that provides been 'silent within the air', within the earlier poem,
ring out. (59) The Actual poem additionally echoes 'The Heated Minutes'
('If a person were just here / Amongst these rocks'), (60) as well as
'The Brandy Glass' ('Only let it form inside his hands
once more--/ Your moment cradled like a brandy glass'). (61)

This go back to archetypes tends in order to make 'All More Than Again' sound
like a coda to all MacNeice's adore poems. And Also it is in this context
that the actual opening a couple of phrases demonstrate many potent: 'As if'. In the
'As if' effect, Edna Longley argues that, because the poem's
clauses swell out, 'we are generally seduced into accepting the actual conditional
as your really indicative'. This, Longley suggests, will be key to the
dreamlike excellence of the poem: 'Suspension in the laws of the time is
dramatized simply by virtual suspension of this rule regarding grammar that requires
a principal statement.' (62) Yet your 'As if' effect also
creates the subtle edge of scepticism, that adds for the poem's faint
aura regarding disturbance. in this sense, the particular 'As if' clause is
potentially devastating: 'As if I had known you' will always
suggest, deep down, 'Although I get never recognized you'.

In many involving MacNeice's final poems, the extended run recedes and the
present breaks down in to end up being able to a mortuary involving empty signs and the labyrinthine
phantoms with the past. 'All over Again' seems being subtly,
structurally infected by this imprisonment inside a limitless procedure of
recycling. The Particular poem's bright warmth will be softly palled simply by the
self-diminishment of its conditional nature. The Particular way in which
MacNeice's 'Again' shatters your finality regarding his
'Over' underlines his kinship using Samuel Beckett. But
nevertheless, for the extent which formal circularity becomes one of
MacNeice's central tropes, the swooping fervour regarding 'All Over
Again' provides certainly 1 of his the majority of redemptive takes on it.

In certain respects, 'All More Than Again' echoes
MacNeice's 'Snow': 'On the tongue around the eyes upon the
ears Within the palms associated with one's hands--/ There's a lot a lot more than glass
between your snow and the massive roses'. (63) 'All Over
Again' similarly opens out to end up being able to multiple senses towards its
conclusion: 'last and initial audio sight upon eyes along with ears'.
Moreover, just as 'Snow' ends 'between', 'All
Over Again' ends imagining 'This 1 Among had been All'.
Writing about 'Snow', Edna Longley locates its a feeling of being
'between' in the center of MacNeice's poetic, in what she
calls his 'dialectic in between conjunction along with disjunction'.
(64) and one may well state that your deregulated order, the actual oddly skewed
balance, regarding 'All More Than Again', constitutes 1 of
MacNeice's the majority of vivid and also indelible soundings-out involving this
knife-edged simultaneity associated with connection and also separation, finalization and
negation. the poem attempts to create the minute of meeting between lovers
all consuming. But, involving course, this could be nevertheless precluded by the (repeated)
'as if'; as well as the a pair of states, the two words, remain apart:
'Between' and 'All' permanently riven by simply difference. As
such, flu irony can be coated within affirmative colour. But 'All Over
Again' holders as among MacNeice's many abiding attempts to
let emotive musicality drown out irony, as the poem attempts in order to hoodwink
sense by means of sound, attempting to create the particular illusion regarding consummation
through the sensual animation involving its moment, its really own poetic

As inside other parable type poems, MacNeice here pares language and
imagery as a new result of an archetypal core, in order that a sly surface simplicity
belies an undertow associated with complexity. Each Along With Every image or even clause in 'All Over
Again' features little particularized depth. Instead, your poem's
propulsive prosody sweeps forward so that madness or message is
almost drowned out by the sound, as the language gets to be a vessel of
driven energy. However, the particular poem's Edenic motifs as well as Romantic
rhetoric furthermore create a kind of aura, in add-on to immediate recognizability.
As such, the character in the poem's dreamtime language is
aesthetically compelling: bearing at once any film-like haze and
insubstantiality, but inside addition the core regarding deeply charged emotive content,
which is at once fuelled along with private intensity, but which may be also
oddly de-individuated to adopt on an emblematic power. Yet the
poem's ultimate balance originates from its marriage of form and
sentiment, as MacNeice pushes the actual State associated with One-ness and the State of
Between-ness preternaturally close. Because if by simply magic, inside the moment involving the
poem's performance, they will manage to interweave. Yet, regarding course, in the
poem's aftermath they will remain apart. That Will momentary illusion of
their fleeting fusion, each any starting as well as an end, utterly depends upon
the musicality with the entire poem. Along With to be able to relive the actual moment, we must
begin most more than again.

In such ways, MacNeice's late poems emphatically mess around
with one's a sensation of time, and thus, ultimately, using one's
sense associated with the fabric and texture, your solidity along with stability, associated with reality.
The following quotation offers an insightful analysis involving their style:

[T]he breakdown associated with temporality suddenly releases this existing of
moment coming from all the activities along with intentionalities that might focus
it along with turn it straight into a room of praxis; thereby isolated, which present
suddenly engulfs the niche along with indescribable vividness, a
materiality of perception properly overwhelming.... This kind of current of
the entire world or even material signifier will come before the subject with
heightened intensity, bearing any mysterious cost involving affect, here
described in the negative terms of anxiety as well as loss regarding reality, but
which one could just also imagine in the positive terms of
euphoria, a high, an intoxicatory or even hallucinogenic intensity. (65)

While this passage, I think, illuminates the particular 'dark
sayings' involving MacNeice's parable poems, it is within fact taken from
Fredric Jameson's essay 'The Cultural Logic involving Late
Capitalism'. Within turn, this suggests how MacNeice's late poetry
represents to be able to us, inside vivid form, Jameson's feeling of the realities
of our contemporary culture, which, he claims:

has finally succeeded within transcending the capacities involving the
individual human body to become able to find itself, for you to organize its
immediate surroundings perceptually, along with cognitively in order to map
its position in a mappable external world. This may now be
suggested this alarming disjunction point between the body
along with its built environment ... can itself stand since the symbol and
analogon of this even sharper dilemma which is your incapacity of
our minds, at least in present, to always be able to map the fantastic global
multinational along with decentered communicational network in
which usually we find ourselves caught as individual subjects. (66)

Of course, it is a push to declare MacNeice as a prophet of
postmodernity, nevertheless the intoxicating and also troubling force associated with his late
verse nonetheless vibrates loudly through our deeply vexed present.

DOI: 10.3366/iur.2012.0011


(1.) Austin Clarke, Collected Poems (Manchester: Carcanet, 200 cool .

(2.) Patrick Kavanagh, Collected Poems (London: Penguin, 2005). For
a latest discussion in the 'noo pomes', notice John Goodby,
'"In Blinking Blankness": The Past Poems', in
Patrick Kavanagh, ed. simply by Stan Smith (Dublin: Irish Academic Press,
2009), pp.145-62.

(3.) Pertaining To a new comparison associated with Kavanagh as well as MacNeice, see Alan Gillis,
'"Ireland is small Enough": Louis MacNeice along with Patrick
Kavanagh', in A New Companion to become able to Irish Literature, Volume Two, ed.
Judith M. Wright (Oxford: Blackwell, 2010), pp.159-75.

(4.) The Actual influence regarding MacNeice about Larkin will be recently discussed by
Stephen Regan, '"Coining up England by a distinct line":
Louis MacNeice and Philip Larkin', throughout Incorrigibly Plural: Louis
MacNeice and the Influence, ed. simply by Fran Brearton and Edna Longley
(Manchester: Carcanet, 2012).

(5.) Michael Longley, 'Introduction', Louis MacNeice:
Poems Selected through Michael Longley (London: Faber along with Faber, 2001), p.x.

(6.) Jon Stallworthy, Louis MacNeice, new ed. (London: Faber and
Faber, 1996), p.415.

(7.) Michael Longley, 'Introduction', Louis MacNeice:
Poems Selected simply by Michael Longley (London: Faber and Faber, 2001), p.x.

(8.) Louis MacNeice, Selected Letters involving Louis MacNeice, ed. by
Jonathan Allison (London: Faber as well as Faber, 2010), pp.561-2.

(9.) Louis MacNeice, Collected Poems, ed. by simply Peter McDonald
(London: Faber and also Faber, 2007), p.793.

(10.) Edna Longley, Louis MacNeice: Any study (London: Faber and
Faber, 198 cool , p.115.

(11.) Louis MacNeice, 'An Alphabet involving Literary
Prejudices' (194 cool , throughout Selected Literary Criticism regarding Louis
MacNeice, ed. simply by Alan Heuser (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987), p.143.

(12.) MacNeice, Selected Letters, p.572.

(13.) MacNeice, Collected Poems, p.793.

(14.) Peter McDonald, Louis MacNeice: Your Poet within His Contexts
(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991), p.171.

(15.) Longley, Louis MacNeice: The Study, p.117.

(16.) Louis MacNeice, The Particular Poetry involving W. B. Yeats (1941), 2nd edn
(London: Faber along with Faber, 1967), p.26.

(17.) McDonald, Louis MacNeice: The Actual Poet within His Contexts, p.153.

(18.) Al Alvarez, 'Lament for a Maker', The Actual New
Statesman, 11 December 1954, 794. Cited within Stallworthy, Louis MacNeice,

(19.) Stallworthy, Louis MacNeice, p.414.

(20.) MacNeice, 'Day associated with Renewal', Collected Poems, p.349.

(21.) MacNeice, Collected Poems, p.392.

(22.) Clair Wills, Which Neutral Island: a Cultural History of
Ireland Throughout Globe War II (London: Faber as well as Faber, 2007), p.77.

(23.) MacNeice, Collected Poems, p.172, p.536.

(24.) Within The Poetry regarding W. B. Yeats, MacNeice had declared:
'The faith within the value of living is really a mystical faith. Your pleasure
in bathing or dancing, in colour or perhaps shape, can become a mystical experience
...', p.16.

(25.) MacNeice, Collected Poems, p.388.

(26.) MacNeice, Collected Poems, p.579.

(27.) MacNeice, Collected Poems, p.523.

(28.) MacNeice, Collected Poems, p.515.

(29.) MacNeice, Collected Poems, p.509.

(30.) Terence Brown, The Particular Literature associated with Ireland: Culture and
Criticism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Or College Press, 2010), pp.163-4.

(31.) MacNeice, Selected Letters, p.176.

(32.) MacNeice, 'House on a Cliff', Collected Poems,

(33.) MacNeice, Collected Poems, p.342, p.335.

(34.) MacNeice, Collected Poems, p.318.

(35.) MacNeice, Collected Poems, p.332.

(36.) Louis MacNeice, Varieties regarding Parable (Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1965), p.22.

(37.) MacNeice, Varieties associated with Parable, p.9.

(38.) MacNeice, Varieties associated with Parable, p.28.

(39.) MacNeice, Varieties of Parable, p.2.

(40.) McDonald, Louis MacNeice: Your Poet inside His Contexts, p.171.

(41.) MacNeice, Varieties regarding Parable, p.8.

(42.) MacNeice, Varieties involving Parable, p.27.

(43.) MacNeice, 'The Burnt Bridge', Collected Poems,

(44.) MacNeice, Collected Poems, p.501.

(45.) Christopher Caudwell, Illusion as well as Reality: a study of the
Sources associated with Poetry (London: Lawrence and also Wishart, 1946), p.155.

(46.) MacNeice, 'Apple Blossom', Collected Poems, p.527.

(47.) MacNeice, 'Solstice', Collected Poems, p.544.

(48.) MacNeice, Collected Poems, p.560.

(49.) MacNeice, Collected Poems, pp.447-8.

(50.) MacNeice, Collected Poems, p.515.

(51.) MacNeice, Collected Poems, p.511.

(52.) MacNeice, Collected Poems, p.516.

(53.) Edna Longley, Louis MacNeice: A New Study, p.127.

(54.) MacNeice, Collected Poems, p.561.

(55.) MacNeice, Selected Literary Criticism, pp.161-2.

(56.) Terence Brown, Louis MacNeice: Sceptical Vision (Dublin:
Macmillan, 1975), p.129.

(57.) MacNeice, Collected Poems, pp.572-3.

(58.) Ben Jonson, 'Song for you to Celia', Your complete Poems
(London: Penguin, 1981), p.106.

(59.) MacNeice, Collected Poems, p.183.

User Image - Blocked by "Display Image" Settings. Click to show.

(60.) MacNeice, Collected Poems, p.59.

(61.) MacNeice, Collected Poems, p.92.

(62.) MacNeice, Collected Poems, pp.219-20.

(63.) MacNeice, Collected Poems, p.24.

(64.) Edna Longley, The Particular Living Stream: Literature along with Revisionism
in Ireland (Newcastle: Bloodaxe, 1994), pp.258-62.

(65.) Fredric Jameson, 'Postmodernism, or even The Particular Cultural Logic
of Late Capitalism', The Actual Jameson Reader, ed. through Michael Hardt and
Kathi Weeks (Oxford: Blackwell, 2000), p.210.

(66.) Fredric Jameson, 'The Cultural Logic of Late
Capitalism', p.223.

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