Haddock, also, exist all the year, the duration of greatest large quantity being generally January and February. In April and March they are most numerous in 27 to 30 fathoms; at other seasons they are in 50 fathoms and much deeper, especially in winter, when typically they may be found in 80 to 100 fathoms. Cusk can be found in the deeply water all of the year.
DuringFebruary and March, and April sizeable schools of cod make their appearance around the bank. At the season these are found most abundantly in the "Winter season Minn Kota Maxxum Ground"; a part of Georges lying eastward and southeastward of the North Shoal between the parallels of 41? 30' and 42? 00' north latitude and 66? 38' and 67? 30' western longitude. The spot of this Winter Fishing Ground is approximately 1,100 square kilometers. This part of the bank would seem entirely provided over to the codfish, since it is too shattered, sharp, and rocky to please the haddock. Depths allow me to share from 30 to 40 fathoms, deepening away from the Northern Shoal. This place is essentially a spawning terrain for the cod, which seem to come on the hank from the SE., as they almost invariably, after hitting the ground, transfer slowly to the N. and W. as spring approaches. This is in the direction of the shoals. As soon as the spawning season is on the schools of cod break-up, but pretty much fish are found on various areas of the ground always of the year, even though rarely is it found so plentiful as when the winter season school is on the ground. Cod are located along the Upper Edge virtually the year all around, though lots of the winter university move on to the inner waters in the gulf among others go over to Browns Banking institution, where the early on comers seem to appear in the first days of April.
Without considered a halibut floor, as compared with a number of the other offshore banks, Georges can show a really considerable find of this species. Most of which take a increased or a lot less amount of halibut, because of its nearness to the market segments it is far more intensely fished than any other ground of equal area and by a far greater variety of crafts. The otter-trawl fleet, the two here and also in The Channel, takes a great deal of this types when its total capture is considered; which fish are mainly modest, of from 4 to 10 pounds in weight, with only rarely a larger one particular. The salt fishers, also, and the rest of the market fleet combine to help make an imposing total of your poundage of halibut from Georges as well as its vicinity. The Georges halibut is prestigious by the industry above the halibut from other reasons. Perhaps its flesh could be superior, although for what purpose it is difficult to state, unless simply because, since the outings to this floor average less days in length, the minn kota maxxum are received from the markets in a fresher problem than are the type from more distant banks.
In the course of July and August the halibut are found along the Northern Edge, over a extend of ground about 65 miles long in 60 to 100 fathoms; and from this time until the difficult weather from the winter commences the minn kota maxxum continues about the Northeast Peak (about 42? 00' N. and 66? 00' W.) on the narrow location on the edge of the all of a sudden deepening normal water, beginning in from 60 to 70 fathoms, then out to 200 and even 300 fathoms. The winter sportfishing on Georges is very difficult and somewhat dangerous, so that the halibut fishery within these waters is rarely carried on or, at best, by very few vessels after December or well before March.
OFFSHORE Banking institutions
The principal halibut grounds on Georges for your summertime and springtime months (April to July) lie between your Cultivator Shoal and the Northern Shoal in depths from 10 to 18 fathoms, and E., S., and SW. in the North Shoal in the same soundings. This place is sometimes named Little Georges. There are also a number of mussel grounds on the south west part of Georges, having depths averaging 20 fathoms, all of these furnish great feeding grounds and a significant catch of halibut within the seasons when these seafood happen to be in the shoal water.
In its manufacturing Georges Financial institution itself is somewhat evenly divided up between haddock and cod, the cod exhibiting a slightly greater proportion. The South Channel, on the traditional western edge of Georges, shows primarily as a haddock ground, and the haddock in the Channel is recognized as a better minn kota maxxum than that from Georges. Georges Bank is also a vital haddock terrain in the spring and early summer season, when this kinds abounds about the Cultivator Shoal (SE. by S. 88 miles from Highland Lighting. Cape Cod) in depths from 18 to 30 fathoms; and at the same year along the Upper Edge (140 to 200 miles E. by S. ? S. from Boston Lightship in about 41? to 42? N. lat. and 66? to 88? W. very long.) in 45 to 80 fathoms in summer, the minn kota maxxum moving off into the deeper water (90 to 100 fathoms) inside the neighborhood of the Corner of the Channel because the winter is available on. Lots of people are found in March, when they give back from the deep water, when minn kota maxxum is carried on 65 miles SE. from Highland in 70 fathoms; then they come into the 40-fathom depths from the North Shoal westward to the Corner of The Channel across the Northern Edge. In Apr the Cultivator Cove is good ground even into 20-fathom depths.
Rose and Crown Shoal. This is a modest piece of floor 7 miles ESE. from Sankaty Go. The minn kota maxxum place lies involving the Round Shoal and Increased and Crown buoys, making a extend perhaps 6 miles extended by 1? miles wide. Sometimes excellent fishing may be experienced from 6 to 12 mile, from Great Spherical Shoal buoy. The cod is definitely the principal types caught, pollock being up coming in significance, and a few haddock, as in other places on contributing to these shoals.
The larger portion of the sail fleet is found minn kota maxxum in the grounds in the eastern side of the Channel and of the western edge of Georges Lender, in part to avoid the damage how the otter trawlers cause for them in pulling away their gear. It is often impossible for these particular steamers in order to avoid some harm to this kind: specifically is this the situation in the thick weather so prevalent essential oil Georges. In the summer months of the "mackerel years" a large catch of this kinds is taken from the waters of the Route.
Haddock are also provide all the 12 months, the universities being most abundant as well as the number greatest in February and January, once the fish are in about 50 to 60 fathoms. Apparently they are available into depths of from 27 to 30 fathoms in April and March for spawning.
The Southwest Portion. (120 mls SSE. from Highland Light, Cape Cod, with 45 to 80 fathom depths) is a good floor for haddock from the beginning from the fall around about Xmas, after which the most effective winter fishing for this particular species is found on the Southeast Part (reached by steaming 145 miles ESE. from Boston Lightship in order to remove the shoals, then SSE. 40 to 50 miles, depending upon what part of the terrain it is wanted to minn kota maxxum). Jan is perhaps the best minn kota maxxum month on this percentage of Georges.
Nantucket Shoals, Madisons Spot. SSE. 13 miles front side Round Shoal buoy, has 9 fathoms over a clean hard bottom of yellow sand. It is about 3 mls long, from SE. to NW. by 1? kilometers wide. This can be a flounder ground for the better part of the season and a excellent cod soil in October and October. Tides are large over this ground, as is the tip elsewhere within this neighborhood.
The stats of the find from Clarks Bank have been shown as well as those of Georges Bank. of which, in fact, this area is a aspect.
Someplace else depths average from 13 to 18 fathoms on the inner areas of the grounds, whence they slope away gradually from the shore soundings into 50, 80, or even more on the exterior edge, where the ground falls away quickly into the deeps. You can find small stretches of coarse gravel, crackedshells and pebbles, and a few muddy spots, even though for the most part this region has a underside of yellow sand.
The depths listed below are from 70 to 100 fathoms more than a broken bottom ofmud and pea gravel, and also in places okay sand. The soil falls off of rapidly on all sides except toward Seal off Island along with the Nova Scotia coast, departing an area at its finish of somewhat indeterminate span, perhaps 18 or 20, miles, and achieving a extended distance across of about 8 mls at its widest part.
Nantucket Shoals Sport fishing Rip is an elongate bank lying 29 mls SE. from Sankaty Mind Light. It is 10 mls long in the NE and SW direction and Southeast Rip (Nantucket Shoals) lies SE. from Sankaty Mind 35 a long way. It has depths from 8 to 10 fathoms over an area about 10 kilometers long by 2 miles wide, with from 22 to 30 fathoms within the sandy underside around it.
The Sankaty Head terrain is about 20 miles lengthy by about 8 mls wide, stretching out from 55 miles SE. from Highland Light to 78 a long way SE. by S ? S. from the same point (the foot of the Funnel), and is bounded on all sides by components of bottom significantly less favorable on the operation in the otter trawl because of the appearance ofsponges and rocks, or other obstacles, which interfere with the free passing of the net over the bottom but provide less issues to the series-trawl fishermen. A good spring haddock ground lies ESE. 65 miles in the Highlands in 70 fathoms. best in April and March. Entering the deeper water, the catches from the fall and winter months being taken primarily In depths of from 60 to 100 fathoms, as the cold temperatures advances the fish move apart in wonderful part from these grounds. Around this season and also in these depths the locality of a corner of the Funnel, Clarks Aspect. and the region N and W of the Cultivator usually have a good winter university of haddock. This has been particularly sizeable during the past about three year. (1923 to 1925). Thus, it might be seen how the Channel is a crucial ground while in most of the 12 months.
There is a little shoal named Pollock Rip, with a level of 7 fathoms, having SW from Seal Island, distant 9? miles; but otherwise the floor slopes very gradually, the depths simply being from 15 to 70 fathoms. The base is mainly coarse gravel and pebbles with occasional rocky places of greater or much less extent. The tides sweep over this ground with considerable pressure out in and from toward the Bay of Fundy. the flood operating strongest.
Mackerel are usually very abundant on Georges with their season, normally being sizeable or method fish. Herring also are found there in great deal but are somewhat distant from market as fresh seafood.
The Record on the Fishery Industry of the us, in 1887, says that the 1st attempt at minn kota maxxum here (of which there is any record) was created in 1821 by three Gloucester vessels. Based on the same power, began in 1830, however, not fully set up as a long-lasting industry until finally 1835, the cod and halibut business.
The proportion of cod taken right here by these vessels is very small, even smaller than that from other grounds fished by the otter-trawl strategy. Pollock and hake, also, make a little item from the fares from your neighborhood from the South Shoal. Generally speaking, this type of items is operated mostly about the smooth, soft sand bottom which this kinds prefers, in the average otter-trawl fare haddock makes the greater area of the catch since. The otter-trawl fishery this is at its best from early May throughJune and July, along with the first stop of August. Few travels are noted from this terrain at other seasons. Probably the haddock results in the shoal grounds in this article earlier than whenever it moves from the same depths in The Funnel.
It will be mentioned that the volume of otter-trawl fares from this soil is modest. It is only in recent years that this method of minn kota maxxum has become employed in this article, the bottom experiencing been regarded as too difficult for the profitable operation of gear with this type after it.
The swordfish appear on Georges on the South west Part and on the The southern part of Edge about June 5, and the travelling schools successfully pass over the lender, northward certain, up to minn kota maxxum 70 August 10. Actually, all through the year when they are found in northern seas, even as much as November, they might be found on Georges. Probably the greatest area of the banking institution for this species is in the parallel of 41? N., where the shoal rises steeply out of "blue normal water."
The early minn kota maxxum for that swordfish usually takes place within this vicinity, and then in normal months mackerel can be found here in great quantity from May 15 to August, and, as is the custom using this uncertain seafood, it may well appear on this page again within the late tumble.
[Table 4--Fishing grounds of the Georges Area, showing the principal varieties taken upon them.]
What exactly is apparently a gradually deepening extension of Seal Tropical isle Ground is found about 65 miles SSE. from Position Desert Rock and 60 miles W. from Close off Island. There appears to be no distinguishing good name for this area.
The cruise fleet functions here also, but, typically, more of these vessels are found on the soil lying some 10 a long way farther eastward, on the side of Georges in somewhat greater water (30 to 50 fathoms) on a rougher and rockier bottom, where there exists a greater amount of cod in the find than in the western area.
More aged reports say (1880-81): At present the fishery is limited to an the occasional trip away from the southern and western benefit., although "Halibut had been formerly discovered here in large quantity" It will likely be noted that a fair quantity of halibut was taken right here during 1923, when this bank ranked third in level of halibut undertaken, which appears a good showing when the comparatively small scale of the ground is considered. Fairly excellent catches have already been made SW from the Northwest Peak of Browns, about 66? 50' west longitude and 42? 40' to the north latitude, along the 100-fathom curve and following eastward on the southward of La Have and above, perhaps to 63? to the west longitude. The Southeast Peak is perhaps one of the most productive in the halibut reasons here, "setting" off from the shoaler parts into the thin deep-water channel between this and Georges perhaps 20 miles remote.
Within somewhat recent years this ground has been much made use of by the otter trawlers, which type of craft has evolved a fruitful fishery in this article, which is being operated in steadily increasing volume and takes a get that is primarily of haddock.
On the whole, the type of fish found on this page and the periods of their very best abundance are far as on Browns Bank. The principal fish taken are halibut, cusk, haddock and cod and hake, and a extremely small amount of pollock. Except for the haddocking, the ideal fishing season is from March to October. Infrequent good fares are brought from these grounds, perhaps more commonly in the spring and early summer time and a few at other seasons, though halibut are said to have been really plenty here in the past however are said to have been comparatively exceptional in recent years. In April they can be found most frequently in 80 fathom depths; in Might in 30 to 40 fathoms, in June the most effective halibuting is had in 25-fathom depths or even in shoaler water. (The halibut get shown for that year chosen (1927) is unusually small, most years yielding a decent amount of this species with this ground. Apparently no part of the Us halibut fleet visited this ground for that year.)
The Funnel.  The Channel represents the european edge of Georges Bank. Its boundaries are somewhat indefinite, but the outdated Eldridge chart states that for the anglers the 30 fathom curve running southerly from Race Point. Cape Cod, restrictions its western edge. This ground is significantly visited by the Boston fleet, both sail and vapor, line trawlers and otter trawlers, the fleet of Gloucester, and the otter-trawl fleet which has developed in New York City in recent years. This place is all very good fishing ground inside the proper season, but probably the most important is the fact that part lying down 25 a long way E. ? S. from Sankaty Head, Nantucket. Here is a degree, sandy bottom part, where, during May,June and July, and August, the otter trawlers operate efficiently in 18 to 30 fathoms water, making a capture that is composed principally of haddock, with a considerable amount of cod, especially in June and July, together with a fair quantity also ofpollock and cusk, and hake. Small halibut are relatively abundantalso and right here, these species of fish simply being of from 5 to R weight, rarely larger sized. Flounders are abundant, with a good number of "lemon soles" and "grey soles," which are very popular with the industry.
By far the most important percentage of the swordfish find landed from the ports ofBoston and Gloucester, and Portland comes from Georges Bank. A considerable part of the fish listed out of this ground under the heading "Miscellaneous" is made up of this species.
[Footnote 14: Capt. John Smith wrote of this place: "In the direction of the Southern and Southwest on this Cape (Cape Cod) is located a dangerous and long shoal of rocks and sands. But so far because i incircled it, I found thirtie fadom h2o aboard the shore, as well as a strong present; which makes mee thinke there exists a Channell concerning the shoales; where is the greatest and best minn kota maxxum to be Summer, Winter season and had in all that Countree. But the Savages say there is not any Channell; but that the shoales begin in the main at Pawmet, to the Ile of Nausit; therefore extends beyond their expertise into the water." How the captain's good reputation for far-visioned knowledge may not be kept too gently, let these figures speak, taken since they are from the bureau's records of the landings in the three plug-ins of Boston, Gloucester. and Portland to the year 1927, when the fares from his "Channell" numbered 2,036, with a poundage of 121,688,693 and a importance of $3,607,358.]
Over most of the bank the base is beach sand, although patches of rough ground (pea gravel, pebbles, and rocks) of greater or less magnitude are found in many localities. Its position in between the Bay of Fundy and the Gulf Flow cause the tide to run swifter than on other banking companies and to swirl around as opposed to passing straight over, forth and back. The writer has seen two men have trouble in positioning an empty dory against the current.
Browns Banking institution. This financial institution lies in a northeastern route from Georges and is segregated from it by a gully 15 miles large, in which the depths range from 100 to 450 fathoms. Its area is about 2,275 square mls. The greatest duration, from SE to NW, is 63 miles and also the greatest width is 43 miles. It is actually situated among 64? 52" and 68? 29" to the west longitude, and 41? 50" and 43? 02" to the north latitude. There is a small rocky shoal around the northern aspect, on which, it is known, there is not 9 to 15 fathoms. The bank slopes away from the shoal, S. and E. to depths of 55 to 75 fathoms, but at a distance of 12 or 15 miles away from, it yet again rises to 30 to 50 fathoms. This area of shoal drinking water, within the 50 fathom limit, is 50 miles very long and has a typical width of 15 a long way. North in the shoal the liquid deepens all of a sudden to 80 and 70 fathoms. The bottom is essentially coarse gravel, pebbles and sand and rocks and it is rich in animal life. The area of the lender is approximately 1,370 square geographical mls.
Nantucket Shoals; Davis Bank; Crab Bank. It is really an irregular piece of bottom lying in a normally ENE. and WSW direction at about 20 miles distance ESE from Sankaty Head. It is perhaps 14 miles lengthy by 5 miles wide at its broadest. Depths upon it are from 4 to 9 fathoms, with soundings of 12 to 18 regarding it, over a bottom of fine sand and cracked shells.
The area of the whole bank is approximately 8,050 rectangular miles, all of which, except for the shoals, can be purchased in summer to the taking of haddock, halibut, cod and cusk and hake, with a large amount of mackereling and swordfishing, plus the taking of other types.
hake, cusk, cod, pollock, halibut and Haddock would be the principal food fishes procured from this financial institution, ranking in volume within the order known as. In worth, however, halibut takes next place in the list. Cod are readily available here in winter months, though fewer vessels seafood right here than on Georges Financial institution, at that period. At other seasons the codfishery on Browns Lender compares positively with that of other banking companies in the location. Cod are present the year all around, in May possibly and June feeding in depths of approximately 40 fathoms, going into 80 fathoms in August, and into depths of about 100 fathoms in cold weather.
Nantucket Shoals (Southern Shoal). This name is used to the minn kota maxxum ground about Nantucket Lightship, which marks the existing South Shoal and the New South Shoal, the two creating a continuous reef of unnatural form some 10 to 12 mls in length and from 1 to 3 miles vast. The upper end of this lies about 12 a long way S. by E. from Sankaty Mind (the Old South Shoal), and also the southern extremity of the New South Shoal reaches to about 20 miles S. ? E. from the identical point. The fishing ground is placed mostly for the S. of those shoals and approximately the lightship, where otter trawling is carried on in all of the directions through the ship besides from N. to NE., where lie the vessels sunk with the German submarine in the past due war. This fishery is additionally carried on WNW. from the deliver for a distance of 40 miles, even into 7 fathom depths near Muskeget Inlet.
St. Georges Bank, more generally referred to as Georges Lender.  This is by far the most important and most important minn kota maxxum ground close to the coast of the usa and is unparalleled in the american Atlantic apart from the Fantastic Bank of Newfoundland. It lies eastward of Cape Cod and Nantucket Shoals which is apparently an extension of your latter, ever since the water is no deeper in between the southern area of the shoals along with the western part of the bank in comparison to many places upon it. Its southern restriction, as displayed on the chart, is 40? 40' northern latitude, even though 50-fathom line extends 7 miles a greater distance south. The southern restrict, therefore, may be considered to be about 40? 30' and the north as 42? 08' north latitude. The eastern aspect is in about 66? and the western in about 69? western longitude. The best length from the northeastern towards the southwestern extremity is about 150 miles; the greatest width, N. and S., about 98 miles, according to the charts of your Coast Questionnaire.
Tides allow me to share quite as strong as about the eastern side of Georges Bank, the ebb owning an average energy of 1 1/3 mls an hour along with the flood is somewhat stronger. The greatest strength of the flood tide sets W. the ebb in practically an opposite direction.
Depths range from 2 to 50 fathoms. On the western part, between the parallels of 41? 10' and 41? 53' to the north latitude along with the meridians of 87? 68 and 20'? 37' west longitude are a number of shoals, known as the East Shoal, North Shoal, South west Shoal. Cultivator, etc. The Southwest Shoal is the biggest, being 15 miles lengthy SSW and NNE., having an average size of 2? miles. The position of the center of the shoal is 41? 39' north latitude and 67? 48' western side longitude. You can find from 2 to 15 fathoms water on the shoals and between the two are depths of from 12 to 30 fathoms. The tide sweeps over these with great power, causing solid rips, and through rough weather conditions the sea splits heavily about them, rendering procedure for their location extremely dangerous.
Cusk are present in this article during many of the year in 80 fathoms on the hard bottom. Pollock are couple of on this floor at any time of the year. This species, together with herring and mackerel, are abundant about the "shoreline soundings" of Close Island Terrain, whence, using the abundant meals furnished from the smaller fish, they range a shorter distance in to the Bay of Fundy. Several mackerel are taken in the traps inside the vicinity of Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, which seems to label the limit of their penetration in any significant schools around the western shoreline of Nova Scotia.
Phelps Bank. This banking institution lies 38 miles SE, ? S. from Sankaty Go Light and agrees pretty much in design, size and trend and character of the bottom with Minn Kota Maxxum Rip. Depths are from 10 to 17 fathoms. In the southeast edge of this is Rogers Fishing Ground, with 24 to 40 fathoms over fine gray sand. It is perhaps mostly a haddock ground.
[Footnote 15. "The earliest history of this title (Saint Georges Shoal) that this writer found appears after a map identified in the local library of Simancas, in Spain, where a graph or chart said to have already been made by a surveyor sent to Virginia by David I of England, in 1610, was discovered in 1885 or 1888, after having well before disappeared from England. This chart is believed to embody, besides the operate of Champlain and other foreign people, the information inside the English graphs of Bright white,Pring and Gosnold, and probably of Waymouth's Ideal Geographical Chart. It is shown to have been drawn by Robert Tyndall or Captain Powell." Genesis of the United States. Alexander Brown.]
Nantucket Shoal--Fantastic Rip. Is 13 mls E. by S. ? S. from Sankaty Head Lighting. Nantucket. It can be 5 mls long from N, to S. and 3 miles broad. Over this area the depths are from 9 to 18 feet, but the fishing is done generally around the ends in 6 to 12 fathoms where bottom is gravel and shells covered with kelp and sponges. Here, as on all these shoals, the greater area of the minn kota maxxum is done by that strategy known as "rip sport fishing." Cod are taken chiefly by hand-lining in May. , and August.June and July
Cod are present here the year about, perhaps the finest minn kota maxxum taking place in May and June, if the minn kota maxxum are found in about 40 fathoms They go into deeper water, about 60 fathoms, in August and into 100 fathoms as the cold weather improvements. This Seal off Island terrain may be regarded essentially as a feeding soil for the cod, which appear to appear in this article after the spawning season is around, to fatten upon the crabs and mollusks lifestyle on the bottom and also on the herring and other tiny fish that go swimming back and forth In the tide rips.
A considerable section of the fish listed under the heading "Miscellaneous" are swordfish, which come upon this bank throughout their summer wanderings.
Close Island Soil. This is called also on the graphs in its north west part, the German Financial institution and lies off the european part of Nova Scotia. Not many charts demonstrate it, since it is somewhat tough to define its exact restrictions. It is a direct continuation of your shore soundings, which slope gradually from the land for the S. and W. and continue within a northerly route beyond what might be regarded as the bounds of the grounds. To the S. it stretches nearly to Browns Bank, from which it can be separated by way of a narrow gully 70 to 80 fathoms deep. On the N. it reaches 38 miles past Seal Tropical island and to the NW. about 35 a long way from the same island. The southern reduce of the soil is in 43? and the upper 43? 45' north latitude, while the traditional western boundary may be placed at 66? 40' west longitude. The entire ground outside the 3 mile restriction covers a region of 1,250 kilometers.
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