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*Notes*
Descriptions random doodles thought
Future Elements
Graphic Design

Audience Analysis
Who is the audience?
What are their demographics?
Where are they located?
How long do they have to read the message?
What is their anticipated level of interest?
Trends?

Demographics
Age
Sex
Social status
Religion
Education level
Economic level
Interests

Location
Where are they in reference to the
Message? – Distance
Where are they? – Describe Location

Time
How long do they have to read the message?
What is in competition with the
message for reading time?

Interest
How interested is the audience in
the subject of the message?
What do they like or dislike?
What interest can be exploited to
get the audience to read the message?

Human factors
Values
Beliefs
Attitudes
Character
Temperament
Outlook
Perspectives

Incorporates Message Analysis
Message Content - concise but complete
Size and Shape - how the message is to be delivered
Readability – typography
Needs the Audience - understands demographics
Use of proven Design Principles and Elements
Effective Graphic Design

How do you get the target audience, or
the prospective consumer’s attention?
How do you encourage the desired response?

Message Content
Supply all of the information expected
Many ads only display the essential information
but indicate where the rest of the details can be
obtained.
i.e. Dealership location and phone number.
Textbooks have all or most of the information
on a subject area depending on what grade
level the book is intended.
Understand the format and know what is expected.

Size and Shape
The size and shape of the design are a
function of all the items included in the
audience analysis.
The design must be the appropriate size
to get the job done.

Readability/Typography
Style of type, font
Size of type, point
Font enhancements,
underline, shadow, word art
White space
Line length and justification
Color of the text and
color of the text background
Page layout

Style of Type
Fonts – There are seven different font groupings, each
with their own intended purpose.
Old Style used in the body of text where legibility is
important.
Sans Serif used for display, headlines, and captions.
Modern much like old style in purpose but has higher
contrast on the lettering strokes.
Square Serif used for display, headlines, and short
blocks of text.
Occasional for special effects, and should be used
sparingly. 3
Text used for special occasions like wedding invitations.

Type Nomenclature
Th
y
Ascender
Line
Waist
Line
Base
Line
Descender
Line
Ascender
Descender
Fillet
Serif
Thick
Thin
Font
Size

Old Style Type
Old Style typefaces have slight
differences between the thick and thin
strokes, rounded serifs and fillets.
These features allow for an eye
pleasing amount of white space thus
making the fonts easier to read and
good for blocks of text.
Century
Garamon
Goudy Old
Style


Modern Type
Modern Type is very similar to old style.
The major difference is there is a much
larger contrast between the thick and thin
strokes. Modern is light and airy, it is
considered a stylish type, and it is very
readable in a block of type.
Bodoni Times New
Roman
Century Schoolbook


San Serif Types
San Serif Types San means without. San serif
types have no serifs. There is little or no difference
in the thickness of any of the strokes of the letters.
Their primary use has traditionally been for
headlines and captions. But these typefaces have
gained popularity for their use in blocks of type.
The lack of serifs allows the letter to be closer
together allowing more words to be on the page.
The readability is decreased but the cost is
reduced.
Arial
Franklin
Lucinda Sans Gothic


Square Serif Types
Square Serif Types have square serifs and
even stroke width. The common uses for the
seldom used square serif types are for
display, head lines, and occasionally for a
short block of text.
Rockwell

Occasional Types
Occasional types are used for special
effect and create high contrast but
should be used very sparingly. These
types should never be used to set a
block of text.
Chiller
Algerian
Broadway
Playbill Stencil


Text Types
Text Type and Old English are very difficult
to read and are reserved for formal events such as
weddings. Due to the ornate nature of the capitol
letters, text type should NEVER BE SET IN ALL
CAPS.
Gothic

Cursive Types
Cursive Types are also occasional types
and should be used for special effect. They
have the ability to show style and class
when used in advertising. They can be hard
to read and should not be set in all capitol
letters.
Commercial
Script


White Space
White space can add or detract from the
readability of a design depending on how
much is used. Too little and the design is
cramped.
Too much and the design is disjointed and
unorganized which makes finding what
information goes together difficult.

Line Length
A long line length with small font size allows for a lot of words to be placed on a page which saves
money but makes the information very hard to read. It is for that very reason that contracts use this
format. It is hard to stay on the correct line because readers have to reposition their eyes several
times as they read down the length of the line.
A short line
length with
a large font
size results
in exactly
the
opposite
situation.

Audience
Fully understanding the audience allows the
designer to select the appropriate design
elements and principles to deliver the
information.

Color
Color can add or detract
from a design by making
it easy or hard to read.
Color can add or detract
from a design by making
it easy or hard to read.

High School Play Poster
Unity- All but the title are
in the same font.
Emphasis- Art work and a
contrasting font are used
for the title.
Rhythm-The diagonal
placement helps the
reader’s eye move down
the page.

This has a
good use
of
emphasis
and
rhythm.
The viewer
is drawn
in.
But
The use of
three fonts
lacks unity
and the font
gets lost in

Chaos

Additional Design Sources
Templates
Most software for print documents has
templates which are designed by
professional designers. They are well done,
BUT they do not take the user off the hook.
Selecting the appropriate format still must be
done based on the needs of the audience
and the intent of the design.

!!!!!Attention!!!!!
Engineers and Engineering Technologists
Technical reports and presentations are
not advertisements.

The audience:
Is looking for information.
Does not want to waste time.
Does not need to be entertained.

The message should be:
Clear
Concise
To the point
Well-organized

There should be a reason for every
element placed on a design.

Epriolen
Community Member
Epriolen
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