2.6. Statistical analysis
All results are expressed as the mean ± SEM. The data were analyzed using one-way factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Student–Newman–Keuls tests for comparisons between the means. Statistical significance was determined as P KDS-4103 after exposure to hypoxia (1% O2) or normoxia for the indicated periods. Results were normalized to GAPDH. (C) And (D) Western blot analysis was performed to detect RANK and RANKL protein expression after culture in hypoxic or normoxic conditions. Band intensities were normalized to those of β-actin. (E) Western blot analysis was performed to detect HIF-1α protein expression after culture in hypoxia or normoxia. Band intensities were normalized to those of β-actin. ?P